BECE 2018 Social Studies Past Question Paper Two

1

 (a) List five examples of natural disasters
(b) Outline five ways by which the physical environment can be protected from degradation

a.
(i) flood torrential rain
(ii) hurricane / typhoon
(iii) tsunamis
(iv) volcanic eruption
(v) land slides
(vi) wildfire / bush fire
(vii) drought
(viii) avalanche
(ix) tornado
(x) earthquake
(xi) earth tremor
(xii) sink holes
(xiii) blizzards
(xiv) cyclonic storms
(xv) thunder storms
(xvi) hail stone
(xvii) heat wave
(xviii) water scarcity
(xix) limnic eruption
(xx) lightning

b.
(i) enforcement of legislation against degradation
(ii) use of appropriate farming methods, eg, contour ploughing, shifting cultivation
(iii) use of appropriate technology
(iv) setting up of conservation of forest
(v) public education
(vi) afforestation
(vii) re-afforestation
(viii) recycle of resources
(ix) using lesser known resources
(x) exploration of alternative energy sources
(xi) proper disposal of waste
(xii) use of bio-degradable materials
(xiii) proper waste management
(xiv) controlling of soil erosion
(xv) use of proper fishing methods
(xvi) forest reserves
(xvii) exploration of alternative sources of resources
(xviii) setting up of conservation agencies
(xix) controlled grazing
(xx) cutting down on consumption of limited resources
(xxi) reuse of physical resources
(xxii) green transportation, eg, the use of bicycles / walking, etc to reduce motor vehicle emission
(xxiii) rain water harvest
(xxiv) pursuing sustainable development goals/ policy
(xxv) environmental monitoring
(xxvi) implementing voluntary action on environmental education, eg, communal labour
(xxvii) keeping vehicles in good condition against emission of excessive smoke
(xxviii) using public transport instead of personal vehicles – to reduce number of motor vehicles on the road, in order to reduce emission
(xxix) environmental impact assessment before establishing industries
(xxx) avoiding the use of genetically modified organisms
(xxxi) partaking in programmes supporting environmental protection.
(xxxii) control of sand winning and mining activities
(xxxiii) planting of trees along water bodies
(xxxiv) setting firebelts
(xxxv) use of proper mining methods

2

 (a) List five characteristics of the North East Trade winds in Ghana.
(b) Describe five effects of the North East Trade winds in Ghana.

a.
(i) Another name is the harmattan
(ii) They blow from the North east of Ghana to the South west of Ghana
(iii) They are usually dry / low relative humidity
(iv) The winds do not bring rains
(v) The winds carry dust along
(vi) They blow around November to February/March
(vii) They bring about hazy weather conditions – causing poor visibility
(viii) They are usually cold / have relatively low temperature
(ix) They are associated with movements of air pressure belts
(x) The cloud cover is low

b.
(i) Causes poor visibility
(ii) Facilitates bush fires / wildfires
(iii) Causes the weather to be cold, dry and dusty
(iv) Prevents rainfall
(v) Causes volume of rivers and water-levels in dams to decrease
(vi) Creates dusty condition – uncovered item become dusty quickly
(vii) Causes discomfort on the eye, skin, nose and body
(viii) Promotes air pollution
(ix) Causes some rivers, streams and other water bodies to dry up
(x) Affects aircraft, rail and ship operations
(xi) Facilitates bush fires
(xii) Causes cracks on lips and feet, which can result in bleeding
(xiii) Enhance salt production
(xiv) Facilitates harvesting and drying of crops
(xv) Facilitates the acquisition of respiratory infections / diseases
(xvi) Facilitates drying of wet clothes and other items
(xvii) Reduces the favourable breeding conditions of mosquitoes
(xviii) Facilitates hunting of animals
(xix) Reduces pasture for animals

3

(a) (i) Define conflict management.
(ii) List five sources of conflict in society

(b) Outline four effects of ethnic conflicts in Ghana.

a.
i) Various measures used to reduce tension during period(s) of misunderstanding to facilitate resolution.

ii)
 property
 intolerance of people
 chieftaincy disputes / power struggle
 poor media reportage
 suspicion
 tribalism / ethnocentrism
 human rights abuse
 location of public facilities
 stereotyping / derogatory remarks
 greed / selfishness / covetousness
 partiality / injustice
 misrepresentation of facts / issues
 favouritism / nepotism
 Discrimination
 Land ownership

b.
(i) loss of property
(ii) loss of lives
(iii) Prevents or slows down development
(iv) discourages local investments
(v) discourages foreign investments
(vi) creates instability / insecurity
(vii) destruction of infrastructure
(viii) intensifies ethnic hatred and bigotry
(ix) human rights abuses
(x) causes suffering among children and women
(xi) displacement of people and property
(xii) increase of government expenditure
(xiii) restriction of goods and services
(xiv) living with constant fear of attack
(xv) imposition of curfews / state of emergency
(xvi) economic activity becomes stagnant
(xvii) lead to famine
(xviii) lead to brain drain / loss of professionals
(xix) lead to emotional and psychological problems
(xx) retardation of education

4

(a) List four ways through which Ghana co-operate with other nations.

(b) Outline four reasons for which Ghana co-operate with neighboring countries. 

(a) (i) Tolerance
Tolerance is the willing acceptance of the views and behaviours of other people or groups of people. When this attitude of tolerance is cultivated, there will be peace and harmony in our communities and conflicts shall be prevented.

(ii) Forgiveness
Forgiveness is the act of pardoning a person or a group of persons for an offence or wrongdoing. Since in any given human society there would always be offence in one way or the other, it is necessary for people to have the willingness to forgive others, just as God also forgives our sins, when we pray and ask Him to.

(iii) Courtesy in speech and actions
Courtesy is a show of politeness or good manners towards others. There is the need to show courtesy when relating to others in order not to offend them. Courtesy is an important element in preventing conflicts.

(iv) Proper investigation
Sometimes people take vengeful actions based only on hearsay. This causes conflicts and must be discouraged. People or groups must always endeavour to do proper investigation into issues so as to ascertain the truth of a matter, and thereafter, take only prudent actions which would prevent conflicts.

(v) Respect for human rights of others
Every human being has basic human rights which must be respected by everyone. Examples of such rights are the right to life, personal liberty, dignity, etc. If people would consider and respect these rights of others, conflicts would be prevented in our communities.

(vi) Discouragement of rumour-mongering
People must desist from spreading rumours about other people or groups, and must rather be careful about what they say and how they speak.

(vii) Respect for cultures and traditions of others
People in communities, especially cosmopolitan ones, have different backgrounds in terms of race, education, religion, etc and therefore have different cultures. It is important to respect the cultures and traditions of others in order to maintain the peace and harmony in our communities.

(viii) Fairness
It is essential for fairness to be upheld by all members of the community in their dealings among themselves. This encourages harmony, discourages resentment and jealousy and therefore prevents conflicts.

(ix) Honesty
Honesty is the character of being sincere and upright. This is a very important value for people to have in order to maintain the bond of mutual trust, harmony and peace.

(b). (i) loss of property
(ii) loss of lives
(iii) Prevents or slows down development
(iv) discourages local investments
(v) discourages foreign investments
(vi) creates instability / insecurity
(vii) destruction of infrastructure
(viii) intensifies ethnic hatred and bigotry
(ix) human rights abuses
(x) causes suffering among children and women
(xi) displacement of people and property
(xii) increase of government expenditure
(xiii) restriction of goods and services
(xiv) living with constant fear of attack
(xv) imposition of curfews / state of emergency
(xvi) economic activity becomes stagnant
(xvii) lead to famine
(xviii) lead to brain drain / loss of professionals
(xix) lead to emotional and psychological problems
(xx) retardation of education

(c)(i)Arbitration
(ii) Negotiation
(iii) Reconciliation

5

Outline five ways by which State Owned Enterprises differ from Private Owned Enterprise.

a.
(i) state owned enterprise is set up by central governments while private owned enterprise is set up by private individuals
(ii) state enterprise is owned by the state, while private owned enterprise is owned by individuals / group of people
(iii) the motive of setting up state owned enterprise is to provide essential services to people at low prices, while the private owned enterprise is set up to make profit
(iv) state owned enterprises are controlled/managed by a board of directors appointed by the government, while private owned enterprises are controlled / managed by board of directors appointed by the shareholders / owners of the business.
(v) state owned enterprises are financed by government, while private owned enterprises raise capital by issuing shares / contributions from shareholders / financed on their own.
(vi) government bears the losses of state owned enterprises, while owners / shareholders bear losses of private owned enterprises.
(vii) government pays profit into consolidated account of state owned enterprises while private owned enterprises profits are paid to owners / shareholders
(viii) government interferes with operations of state owned enterprises, while government does not directly interfere with operations of private owned enterprises.
(ix) government provides subsidies for state owned enterprises while private owned enterprises pay taxes to government.
(x) huge capital is involved in the setting up and operations of state owned enterprises, while minimal capital is involved in the setting up and operations of private owned enterprises.
(xi) government influences pricing of products of state owned enterprises, while private owned enterprises fix their own prices
(xii) government may allow private partnerships in the setting up and operations of state owned enterprises, while private owned enterprises do not allow government partnership in setting up and operations
(xiii) State owned enterprise is established through the Act of parliament while private enterprise is established through the Registrar General’s Department.

6

(a) State four ways by which the health needs of Ghanaians can be improved

(b) Outline four ways by which improved health of people can contribute to national development.

a.
(i) provision of potable water
(ii) health insurance schemes
(iii) improved nutrition
(iv) regular physical exercises
(v) public education on the need to seek scientific medical treatment
(vi) development of medical research centres
(vii) training and retraining of medical personnel
(viii) observing proper sanitation and environmental cleanliness
(ix) preventive health education
(x) first aid education
(xi) establishment of health centres
(xii) improvement of existing hospitals and clinic facilities
(xiii) improvement of remuneration of all categories of health workers
(xiv) NGO’s churches and donor agencies be encouraged to assist the health sector
(xv) provision of essential drugs to the hospital

b.
(i) ready and available human resource
(ii) saves income and accumulation of capital
(iii) reduces absenteeism from work
(iv) high human productivity
(v) increases life expectancy
(vi) reduces government expenditure on health
(vii) source of taxes for government
(viii) full utilization

End Of Paper

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