BECE 2013 Social Studies Past Question Paper Two


(a) Study the map of Ghana shown (above) and identify the administrative regions 
(b) Outline five ways in which mountains and highlands are important

1. (a) I – Upper West Region
II – Brong Ahafo Region
III – Volta Region
IV – Ashanti Region
V – Western Region

1. (b) (i) Formation of rainfall
Highlands are important for the formation of relief rainfall. Relief or orographic rainfall forms when moisture-laden air mass / wind blows towards a highland / mountain. The rising air cools and condenses to form clouds, which fall as rain.

(ii) Sources of water bodies
Some natural water bodies, such as streams and rivers start at a high point. The high point could be a mountain, hill or other highland. The starting point of streams and rivers is known as its source. An example in Ghana is the Densu river, whose source is the Atewa- Atwiredu mountain range.

(iii) Reserves of mineral deposits
A good number of highlands have rich deposits of minerals, which are essential sources of income and foreign exchange. For instance, the Atiwa range has large deposits of bauxite and the rocky mountains of Colorado are rich in uranium and silver deposits.

(iv) Habitat for various species of wildlife
Habitat is the natural conditions and environment in which a plant or animal lives. Most highlands and mountains serve as habitat for wildlife, such as birds, pandas, snakes, etc. can safely live and reproduce.

(v) Protection of water bodies
Some water bodies, such as streams, ponds, lakes, lie in valleys or at the bases of highlands, which protect them from contamination or drying up.

(vi) Tourist attraction sites
Highlands all over the world are popular tourist sites. Tourists from all over the world visit such places for recreational and relaxation. Tourism is an important source of income and foreign exchange.

(vii) Sporting activities
Certain sports such as mountain biking, skiing, etc, require highlands to practice or do. Highlands and mountainous terrain serve as suitable places for the practice of such sports.

(viii) Scientific research and experiment
Highlands and mountains, due to their nature, are often considered favourable sites for several scientific research and experiments, especially in botany, zoology and astronomy. Examples of observatories on highlands are Mount Graham International Observatory on Mount Graham and Meyer-Womble Observatory on Mount Evans, both in USA.

(ix) Telecommunication mast placement
Highlands are suitable places for the positioning of telecommunication masts for radio, television, internet and mobile networks


 (a) List four features of a slum
(b) Enumerate four measures that can be taken to prevent slums in the urban towns of Ghana

2. (a) Features of a slum
(i) Unplanned and disorganized settlement arrangement
(ii) Poor drainage system
(iii) Poor road network
(iv) Poor sanitation
(v) Overcrowding
(vi) Lack of / inadequate social amenities
(vii) High unemployment rate
(viii) High incidence of disease
(ix) High rate of social vices, such as stealing, prostitution, etc

2. (b)
Measures that can be taken to prevent slums in the urban towns of Ghana

(i) Proper planning and layout of settlement
There is the need for the Town and Country Planning Department of the Ministry of Environment, Science and Technology to diligently carry out their responsibility of planning and management of the growth and development of cities, towns and villages in Ghana.

(ii) Strict execution of plans and layouts
Institutions, such as the District and Metropolitan Assemblies, the Police, the Judiciary must collaborate to ensure that developers / settlers strictly adhere to the plans and layout of communities.

(iii) Proper Waste Management
Waste management operators, such as Zoomlion, must be supported to offer their services at affordable rates to all settlements in urban towns.

(iv) Creation of more job opportunities in the rural areas
The government and other bodies must create more employment opportunities such as cottage industries, plantations, factories, etc in the rural areas. The existing rural industries must also be improved upon in order to make them more productive and lucrative. These measures would encourage those who move from the rural to the urban areas in search of jobs to stay and work in the rural areas and still earn sufficient income to cater for themselves and their families.

(v) Attractive government incentives for corporate bodies and firms
The government must provide attractive incentives to corporate bodies and firms to entice them to set up branches / agencies of their businesses in the rural areas. Some of these incentives could be tax rebates, tax holidays, manpower training, subsidies, award schemes, etc, which would eventually draw lots of businesses / industries to the rural areas. This should serve as motivation for rural dwellers to stay and work there.

(vi) Provision of more/ better social amenities in rural areas
There is the need for the provision of new and improved social amenities (modern infrastructure) such as public toilets, schools, potable water, electricity, information and communication services, recreational centres, etc, in the rural areas. This would make life in the rural areas more attractive and interesting. Rural dwellers would therefore be enticed to stay

(vii) Amendment of negative cultural practices
Certain cultural practices or aspects of them that are not desirable must be either changed or modified. Some of these practices are puberty rites, widowhood rites, forced marriages, female genital mutilation, etc. Certain aspects, of these practices, which are painful, shameful, humiliating or dehumanizing must be either stopped or modified to more acceptable forms. If this is done it would take away the fear that makes some people escape and hence encourage them to stay in the rural areas.

(viii) Modernisation of agricultural industry in the rural areas
Agriculture is the main source of livelihood in many rural communities. However, most youthful rural dwellers today find the use of simple tools and methods for agriculture boring, tiresome and less productive. The times when subsistence farming was enough are past and gone. What is needed in these modern times is the introduction of current state-of- the-art technology and implements in the agricultural sector in the rural areas. This ensures higher interest in agric as well as increased yield / productivity, which would mean increased financial income for the agriculturists in the rural areas.

(ix) Educating the rural populace on dangers involved with urban migration and opportunities in rural areas.
It is important that governmental agencies and other socially oriented organizations render intensive education to the rural folks. They must educate them on both the challenges involved in migrating without proper planning to the urban areas and the opportunities still available in the rural areas. Some of these challenges could be lack of accommodation, lack of employment opportunities, getting of infectious diseases, involvement in social vices due to peer pressure or stress and hence danger of being arrested and being sent to prison, etc. Some of the opportunities in rural areas are ease of accommodation, acquisition of land for business or residence, lesser temptation for social vices, etc.


(a) Match the political events listed below with their corresponding activities in the table that follows
– The Poll Tax Ordinance of 1852
– The Bond of 1844
– The ‘Sagrenti’ war of 1874
– The 1948 riots
– The Yaa Asantewaa war of 1901

 Political ActivityEvent
IAn agreement signed between the British government and some chiefs of the Gold Coast

IIThe war fought by the British soldiers under their leader Sir Garnet Wolsley and the people of Ashanti

IIIThe disturbances that occurred in the Gold Coast after the shooting of the ex-service men by the British soldier

IVThe introduction of a law to collect taxes from the people of the Gold Coast

(b). Outline four attitudes and values needed to prevent conflict in the community


Political Activity



An agreement signed between the British

government and some chiefs of the Gold


The Bond of 1844


The war fought by the British soldiers under

their leader Sir Garnet Wolsley and the people of Ashanti

The ‘Sagrenti’ war of



The disturbances that occurred in the Gold

Coast after the shooting of the ex-service men by the British soldier

The 1948 riots


The introduction of a law to collect taxes from the people of the Gold Coast

The Poll Tax Ordinance

of 1852

3.(b) Attitudes and values needed to prevent conflict in the community.
(i) Tolerance
Tolerance is the willing acceptance of the views and behaviours of other people or groups of people. When this attitude of tolerance is cultivated, there will be peace and harmony in our communities and conflicts shall be prevented.

(ii) Forgiveness
Forgiveness is the act of pardoning a person or a group of persons for an offence or wrongdoing. Since in any given human society there would always be offence in one way or the other, it is necessary for people to have the willingness to forgive others, just as God also forgives our sins, when we pray and ask Him to.

(iii) Courtesy in speech and actions
Courtesy is a show of politeness or good manners towards others. There is the need to show courtesy when relating to others in order not to offend them. Courtesy is an important element in preventing conflicts.

(iv) Proper investigation
Sometimes people take vengeful actions based only on hearsay. This causes conflicts and must be discouraged. People or groups must always endeavour to do proper investigation into issues so as to ascertain the truth of a matter, and thereafter, take only prudent actions which would prevent conflicts.

(v) Respect for human rights of others
Every human being has basic human rights which must be respected by everyone. Examples of such rights are the right to life, personal liberty, dignity, etc. If people would consider and respect these rights of others, conflicts would be prevented in our communities.

(vi) Discouragement of rumour-mongering
People must desist from spreading rumours about other people or groups, and must rather be careful about what they say and how they speak.

(vii) Respect for cultures and traditions of others
People in communities, especially cosmopolitan ones, have different backgrounds in terms of race, education, religion, etc and therefore have different cultures. It is important to respect the cultures and traditions of others in order to maintain the peace and harmony in our communities.

(viii) Fairness
It is essential for fairness to be upheld by all members of the community in their dealings among themselves. This encourages harmony, discourages resentment and jealousy and therefore prevents conflicts.

(ix) Honesty
Honesty is the character of being sincere and upright. This is a very important value for people to have in order to maintain the bond of mutual trust, harmony and peace.


(a) List any four ethnic groups in Ghana
(b) Explain any four ways of sustaining unity among the different ethnic groups in Ghana

4. (a)Ethnic groups in Ghana
(i) Akan
(ii) Ga-Dangbe
(iii) Mole Dagbon
(iv) Ewe
(v) Guans

(b) Ways of sustaining unity among the different ethnic groups in Ghana
(i) Encouraging inter-ethnic marriages
An inter-ethnic marriage is one that involves couples of different ethnic backgrounds, eg, an Akan man who marries an ewe woman. The higher the rate of inter-ethnic marriages, the greater the bond among the various ethnic groups and hence the greater the chance of inter-ethnic unity

(ii) Respect for cultures and traditions of others
Distinct ethnic groups have different cultures. In other words, people of different ethnic backgrounds have different ways of living. None of them should ever be considered as inferior to another. It is important to respect the cultures and traditions of others in order to maintain the peace and unity among the ethnic groups.

(iii) Emphasis on Socio-Cultural Education
Lack of knowledge of other ethnic group’s social and cultural lifestyle causes misunderstanding, friction and disunity. It is therefore important to adequately educate people, especially the youth on social and cultural lifestyles of ethnic groups so as to promote better understanding and tolerance and hence, inter-ethnic unity.

(iv) Valuing peace and stability
The relative peace and stability that Ghana is enjoying should not be taken for granted by anyone. Peace and stability is necessary for the rapid development of the nation. Without it, there would be little or no progress or yet probably retrogression and destruction, in which case everyone loses. It is important therefore to cherish and protect the peace and stability to sustain unity in Ghana.

(v) Being development conscious
Ghanaians must cultivate a development consciousness. If people are busy trying to develop the nation, the community and their own lives, they would find ways of coming together for developmental purposes, thereby creating a stronger bond of unity among the different ethnic group.

(vi) Encouraging multi-ethnic makeup of schools and other training institutions
Students must be encouraged to select schools outside their ethnic localities. When this happens, our schools‟ population would be multi-ethnic. Students from different ethnic backgrounds would then live and grow up together as one people, thereby fostering inter- ethnic unity.

(vii) Posting national service personnel and workers to work in other ethnic areas
National service personnel and other workers should be posted to work in ethnic areas other than theirs. This would give them the opportunity to learn and appreciate the culture and traditions of the local ethnic group, just as the locals also learn to appreciate theirs. A bond of unity should thereby be created to promote inter-ethnic unity.

(viii) Participating in the cultural events of other ethnic groups
People must develop the interest in participating in other ethnic groups’ cultural events, such as marriages, festivals, etc. This could engender greater value and appreciation for other ethnic groups and hence increase the unity among them.


 Explain five measures that can be adopted to improve the quality of life in the rural areas.

Measures that can be adopted to improve the quality of life in the rural areas

(i) Construction of good roads
Good roads are essential for development of any community. Good roads will make the transportation of agricultural produce, equipment and labour easier, cheaper and faster. This should in turn increase productivity and the quality of life

(ii) Provision of electricity
Electricity is needed to operate several things that make our lives comfortable. Some of the common devices that need electricity to function are radios, television, light bulbs, refrigerators, mobile phones, fans, computers, etc

(iii) Supply of potable water
Potable water is one of the basic necessities of life. It should therefore, at all cost, be made available to everyone in the country, including rural areas. Water is needed for most domestic activities, such as drinking, cooking, washing, etc; and also for industrial processes, such as manufacturing and food processing.

(iv) Provision of telecommunication services
Telecommunication services such as telephone, radio, television, mobile and internet facilities are no longer a luxury, but a necessity for rapid development and higher quality of life. These services must therefore be made readily accessible everywhere, including the rural areas.

(v) Construction of affordable housing units
Shelter is another basic necessity of life. Construction of decent and affordable houses for the benefit of rural folks and other people working in rural areas should definitely make life more enjoyable for them.

(vi) Provision of modern equipment/ technology
Agriculture is the main occupation for most rural dwellers. Provision of modern equipment for farmers, fishermen and other artisans in the rural areas should greatly improve their productivity and hence their quality of life.

(vii) Building more schools and training institutes with quality facilities and staff
Children and youth living in rural areas also deserve quality education to acquire knowledge, skills and attitudes that will help them improve their lives. Adequate provision of more and better schools with excellent facilities and staff is therefore needed.

(viii) Building more health centres with high quality equipment and personnel
Health is of paramount importance, if people anywhere are to enjoy quality life. The availability of health centres with high quality facilities and personnel is critical in maintaining the general health and well-being of rural dwellers.


(a) What is the difference between education and training?
(b) Enumerate four advantages of using modern technology in the production of goods and services.

(a) Education is a process of learning geared towards assisting the individual to acquire knowledge, skills and attitudes that will help him/her to improve his/ her life; whereas, training is a specific form of education that is aimed at acquiring expertise in a particular vocation or profession


Advantages of using modern technology in the production of goods and services.
(i) Greater speed / efficiency
Correct application of modern technology should ensure less waste of time and resources. Better work can be done at a faster rate, if modern technology is employed. For instance, using an electric sewing machine would enable a dressmaker to sew clothes much faster than using a mechanical one.
(ii) Higher accuracy
Using modern technology enhances the accuracy of work output. For instance, a document typed using a word processing application on a computer should be more accurate than one that was typed using a typewriter.

(iii) Higher productivity
Productivity is bound to increase, if modern technology is properly applied, since more products /services will be obtained from a given volume of inputs and resources. For example, a farmer who uses a combine harvester will surely harvest more farm produce more effectively than his colleague using a sickle.

(iv) Greater comfort
Most modern technologies are much more comfortable to use than older implements, since a relatively less effort applied achieves greater and better output. For instance, it is much more comfortable to grind corn using a mill than to use a stone or mortar and pestle.

(v) Increased marketability
Products that are made using modern technology tend to have better finishing and are more attractive and marketable than ones made with older technology.

End Of Paper

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