BECE 2012 Social Studies Past Question Paper Two

1

(a) State four problems created in the urban areas by rural-urban migration

1b.
(b) Describe four measures that can be adopted to reduce rural-urban migration

DISCLAIMER: ANSWERS PROVIDED ARE ONLY GUIDELINES TO BE EXPANDED, IF REQUIRED, INTO ESSAY FORM FOR FULL MARKS IN THE EXAMINATION.

(a) Problems created in the urban areas by rural-urban migration

(i) Increase in streetism
(ii) Creation of slums
(iii) Increased environmental degradation
(iv) Increased cost of living
(v) Reduced access to social amenities
(vi) Increase in criminal activities
(vii) Increased unemployment rate
(viii) Reduced economic productivity
[any four]

DISCLAIMER: ANSWERS PROVIDED ARE ONLY GUIDELINES TO BE EXPANDED, IF REQUIRED, INTO ESSAY FORM FOR FULL MARKS IN THE EXAMINATION.

(b) Measures that can be adopted to reduce rural-urban migration

(i) Creation of more job opportunities in the rural areas
The government and other bodies must create more employment opportunities such as cottage industries, plantations, factories, etc in the rural areas. The existing rural industries must also be improved upon in order to make them more productive and lucrative. These measures would encourage those who move from the rural to the urban areas in search of jobs to stay and work in the rural areas and still earn sufficient income to cater for themselves and their families.

(ii) Attractive government incentives for corporate bodies and firms
The government must provide attractive incentives to corporate bodies and firms to entice them to set up branches / agencies of their businesses in the rural areas. Some of these incentives could be tax rebates, tax holidays, manpower training, subsidies, award schemes, etc, which would eventually draw lots of businesses / industries to the rural areas. This should serve as motivation for rural dwellers to stay and work there.

(iii) Provision of more/ better social amenities in rural areas
There is the need for the provision of new and improved social amenities (modern infrastructure) such as public toilets, schools, potable water, electricity, information and communication services, recreational centres, etc, in the rural areas. This would make life in the rural areas more attractive and interesting. Rural dwellers would therefore be enticed to stay

(iv) Amendment of negative cultural practices
Certain cultural practices or aspects of them that are not desirable must be either changed or modified. Some of these practices are puberty rites, widowhood rites, forced marriages, female genital mutilation, etc. Certain aspects, of these practices, which are painful, shameful, humiliating or dehumanising must be either stopped or modified to more acceptable forms. If this is done it would take away the fear that makes some people escape and hence encourage them to stay in the rural areas.

(v) Modernisation of agricultural industry in the rural areas
Agriculture is the main source of livelihood in many rural communities. However, most youthful rural dwellers today find the use of simple tools and methods for agriculture boring, tiresome and less productive. The times when subsistence farming was enough are past and gone. What is needed in these modern times is the introduction of current state-of-the-art technology and implements in the agricultural sector in the rural areas. This ensures higher interest in agriculture as well as increased yield / productivity, which would mean increased financial income for the agriculturists in the rural areas.

(vi) Educating the rural populace on dangers involved with urban migration and opportunities in rural areas.
Quite a number of rural folks migrate to the urban areas without even knowing what awaits them there. It’s important that governmental agencies and other socially oriented organizations render intensive education to the rural folks. They must educate them on both the challenges involved in migrating without proper planning to the urban areas and the opportunities still available in the rural areas. Some of these challenges could be lack of accommodation, lack of employment opportunities, getting of infectious diseases, involvement in social vices due to peer pressure or stress and hence danger of being arrested and being sent to prison, etc. Some of the opportunities in rural areas are ease of accommodation, acquisition of land for business or residence, lesser temptation for social vices, etc.
[any four]

2

a(i) What is superstition?
a(ii) Give two examples of superstitious beliefs

b Outline five effects of superstitious beliefs on a community.

DISCLAIMER: ANSWERS PROVIDED ARE ONLY GUIDELINES TO BE EXPANDED, IF REQUIRED, INTO ESSAY FORM FOR FULL MARKS IN THE EXAMINATION.

2.(a) (i) Superstition
A belief system based on perceptions of the supernatural or the spiritual realm rather than on factual reasoning

DISCLAIMER: ANSWERS PROVIDED ARE ONLY GUIDELINES TO BE EXPANDED, IF REQUIRED, INTO ESSAY FORM FOR FULL MARKS IN THE EXAMINATION.
a.
(ii) Examples of superstitious beliefs
? The belief that certain animals must not be killed
? The belief that some particular plants/ trees must not be cut
? The belief that one must not sweep at night
? The belief that one must not whistle while taking a bath
? The belief that a child’s tooth that comes out must be thrown on a rooftop.
? The belief that one must not work on ones farm on certain days
? The belief that a couple must not have sex outdoors (even when no one is watching)
? The belief that one must not go fishing on specific days

2b.
DISCLAIMER: ANSWERS PROVIDED ARE ONLY GUIDELINES TO BE EXPANDED, IF REQUIRED, INTO ESSAY FORM FOR FULL MARKS IN THE EXAMINATION.

(b) Effects of superstitious beliefs on a community

Positive Effects
(i) They help to facilitate safety of the community
(ii) They help to inculcate acceptable social habits in the society
(iii) They help to uphold law and order
(iv) They support the preservation of the environment
(v) They help to maintain personal hygiene

Negative Effects
(vi) They discourage scientific advancement and technology
(vii) They generate conflicts among members of the community
(viii) They create intense and unreasonable fear in the community
(ix) They slow down development / progress in the community
(x) They sometimes permit abuse of one’s human rights
(xi) They create suspicions among persons in a community
(xii) They discourage creativity concerning innovative solutions to societal problems
[any five]

3

(a) Why was the Watson Commission set up?

3b.
(b) Give four reasons for the 1948 riots

DISCLAIMER: ANSWERS PROVIDED ARE ONLY GUIDELINES TO BE EXPANDED, IF REQUIRED, INTO ESSAY FORM FOR FULL MARKS IN THE EXAMINATION.
(a) Why the Watson Commission was set up
The Commission was set to
(i) investigate the causes of the 1948 riots and
(ii) make recommendations to the colonial administration on how to prevent future occurrences

DISCLAIMER: ANSWERS PROVIDED ARE ONLY GUIDELINES TO BE EXPANDED, IF REQUIRED, INTO ESSAY FORM FOR FULL MARKS IN THE EXAMINATION.

(b) Reasons for the 1948 riots;
(i) The shooting and killing of 3 ex-servicemen on 28th February 1948 at the Christianborg crossroad while on a march to the Osu Castle to present a petition to the Governor
(ii) The difficulties (no jobs, no pension allowance, no homes) of the ex-service men.
(iii) The Alan Burns Constitution was not favorable, because it did not offer enough opportunity (seats) for local (Ghanaian) participation in the legislative and executive councils.
(iv) There were insufficient facilities for education and health
(v) The introduction of Conditional Sales (forced buying of unneeded items, before buying what was actually needed)
(vi) The widely held belief that the white man was superior to the black man was shattered during the world war as Ghanaian soldier fought alongside British soldier.
(vii) Employment difficulties for school leavers
(viii) Cutting down of cocoa trees that had been affected by the swollen shoot disease
(ix) High prices of essential commodities, which was caused by general shortage
(x) The monopoly and other negative practices of the Association of West African Merchants (AWAM) made several African businesses suffer and hence brought great economic hardships to the local people.
[any four]

4

(a) Identify four sources of conflicts in Ghana

(b) Explain four effects of conflicts in Ghana

DISCLAIMER: ANSWERS PROVIDED ARE ONLY GUIDELINES TO BE EXPANDED, IF REQUIRED, INTO ESSAY FORM FOR FULL MARKS IN THE EXAMINATION.
(a) Sources of conflicts in Ghana

(i) Chieftaincy disputes
(ii) The media (both print and electronic)
(iii) Suspicion and intolerance among individuals and groups
(iv) Land ownership problems
(v) Human rights abuse
(vi) Religious beliefs
(vii) Gender discrimination
(viii) Marital misunderstandings
(ix) Political differences
(x) Tribal /ethnic / racial / cultural differences
(xi) Socialization (personal standards of social ethics)
(xii) acculturation
[any four]

DISCLAIMER: ANSWERS PROVIDED ARE ONLY GUIDELINES TO BE EXPANDED, IF REQUIRED, INTO ESSAY FORM FOR FULL MARKS IN THE EXAMINATION.
(b) Effects of conflicts in Ghana
(i) Fear and Insecurity
When a conflict occurs, people either lose their sense of security or actually become insecure. Eg, if there is conflict between mother and father at home, the children may become scared and tensed, and therefore cannot go about their duties or socialize in the normal way. In the case of regional / ethnic violence, people become fearful and hence are unable to carry out their usual socio-economic or other activities.

(ii) Disruption of social activities
Conflicts interfere with the normal conduct of society. Activities such as family socialization, children attending school, workers carrying out duties, utility services operating, transportation services running, etc, may all be stopped due to physical destruction of social amenities, insecurity or suspicion.

(iii) Economic downturn
Conflicts cause a general decline in the economy. This is because businesses and other service providers may be forced to shut down / suspend / significantly reduce their services, thereby lowering the per capita income. This situation also results in reduced provision of goods and services ( less productivity). In such circumstances, prices of the few goods and services on the market are greatly hiked (increased), thereby creating intense economic hardship in the nation.

(iv) Injuries, loss of life and property
Serious conflicts / intense fighting can lead to injuries, loss of lives and property of inhabitants and state. When tempers rise to uncontrollable levels, parties involved in the conflict try to inflict the highest possible damage to their opponents in order to punish them or ‘teach them a lesson’. They therefore use various kinds of weapons which kill people, cause serious injuries or destroy property. This could happen in various kinds of conflicts, from domestic to inter-regional.

(v) Displacements of persons
Displacements of persons occur when people move out of their usual places of abode/ work, due to conflict, to reside in other areas they consider safer or more peaceful. People may move out of their family homes /schools /workplace / worship centre / communities / towns / regions, wherever the conflict may be, to other places. The new places they move to, even though it may be safer or more peaceful, may be less comfortable for them, since they may not get the basic necessities, pleasures or social environment they are used to in their original places. This could make life difficult or even unbearable for them.

(vi) Creates conditions for human rights abuses
In times of conflict, there is usually a breakdown of law and order, and some people tend to take undue advantage to abuse the fundamental human rights of others. While some become fearful and hence ‘coil into their shells’, others become more careless and violent. The more careless ones then abuse the rights of the others. Eg, due to conflict, a mother may refuse to feed the child, a boss may refuse to pay an employee for work done, a religious sect may stop another from worshiping, a person may kill another person, etc. All these constitute abuses of human rights.
[any four]

5

(a) Give four reasons for saving

(b) Outline four avenues for saving

 
DISCLAIMER: ANSWERS PROVIDED ARE ONLY GUIDELINES TO BE EXPANDED, IF REQUIRED, INTO ESSAY FORM FOR FULL MARKS IN THE EXAMINATION.

(a) Reasons for saving

(i) Helps to manage one’s finances and avoid over- spending
(ii) Helps to ensure the security of one’s future (‘for a rainy day’)
(iii) Enables one to purchase or do something expensive in future.
(iv) Helps one to make significant investment in a given venture.
(v) Helps to increase one’s financial wealth or net worth.
(vi) Helps one to have a sound and peaceful mind, in order to be more productive.
(vii) Helps one to be seen as financially reliable and responsible (good reputation)
[any four

DISCLAIMER: ANSWERS PROVIDED ARE ONLY GUIDELINES TO BE EXPANDED, IF REQUIRED, INTO ESSAY FORM FOR FULL MARKS IN THE EXAMINATION.

(b) Avenues for saving

(i) Banks (saving account, current account, treasury bill, etc)
(ii) Savings and loans companies
(iii) Social security schemes
(iv) Insurance companies
(v) Credit unions
(vi) ‘Susu’ companies
(vii) Money /Savings box

6

(a) Give four reasons for the establishment of state owned enterprises in Ghana

(b) Highlight four problems facing state owned enterprises in Ghana

DISCLAIMER: ANSWERS PROVIDED ARE ONLY GUIDELINES TO BE EXPANDED, IF REQUIRED, INTO ESSAY FORM FOR FULL MARKS IN THE EXAMINATION.
(a) Reasons for the establishment of state owned enterprises in Ghana
(i) Provision of employment for workers.
(ii) Provision of essential goods and services at affordable costs
(iii) Protection of certain sectors which are considered to be of national interest and pride.
(iv) Large capital required to establish certain vital services may not be obtained by private enterprises.
(v) Rapid development of the economy
(vi) Maintain control of certain crucial factors that affect the economy
[any four

DISCLAIMER: ANSWERS PROVIDED ARE ONLY GUIDELINES TO BE EXPANDED, IF REQUIRED, INTO ESSAY FORM FOR FULL MARKS IN THE EXAMINATION.

(b) Problems facing State Owned Enterprises (SOEs) in Ghana

(i) Low productivity – Many SOEs are producing at levels well below their capacities.

(ii) Incompetent and inefficient staff – Some SOEs are staffed with personnel with relatively low levels of training, experience and skills.

(iii) Poor working attitude of staff – The working attitudes of many workers in several SOEs are simply destructive (negative)

(iv) Political inconsistencies / interference– Each political party that comes to power has different ideas on how the SOEs must be managed. Hence, there is no political consistency.

(v) Insufficient funds / capital – Many SOEs do not have the needed funds to operate at optimum (best / highest) levels.

(vi) Bribery, Corruption and Embezzlement – Almost all SOEs in Ghana are perceived to have various levels of bribery, corruption and embezzlement present in them.

(vii) Lack of trust by general public – the general public seems to have a low level of trust in SOEs.

(viii) Excessive patronage of services – There is excessive patronage of (extreme pressure on) some SOEs products and services due to the affordable rates and the monopoly (‘one man show’) that some of them have.
[any four]

End Of Paper

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